Higher order non-linear effects in a Josephson parametric amplifier

Bogdan Kochetov and Arkady Fedorov

Non-linearity of the current-phase relationship of a Josephson junction is the key resource for a Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA), the only device in which the quantum limit has so far been
achieved at microwave frequencies. A standard approach to describe JPA takes into account only the lowest order (cubic) non-linearity resulting in a Duffing-like oscillator equation of motion or in
a Kerr-type non-linearity term in the Hamiltonian. In this paper we derive the quantum expression for the gain of JPA including all orders of the Josephson junction non-linearity in the linear response
regime. We then analyse gain saturation effect for stronger signals within semi-classical approach. Our results reveal non-linear effects of higher orders and their implications for operation of a JPA.